Our technical reports and pedagogical leaflets promote best practices and set recommendations to foster a common regulatory culture.
September 2023
Report on the 3rd MEDREG Presidents’ Workshop

This report covers the discussions held in the MEDREG’s 3rd Presidents' Workshop titled "The Role of a Coherent Regulation in Promoting Energy Transition in the Mediterranean Region" in June 2023.
The workshop explored topics such as renewable energy integration, energy efficiency, cross-border interconnections, and regulatory harmonisation.
This report provides an overview of the workshop proceedings, key insights, and recommendations that emerged from the discussions, aiming to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on promoting sustainable energy transition in the Mediterranean.

May 2023
High-level Workshop Report on The Role of Regional Organisations in Promoting Coherent Regulation to Accelerate the Energy Transition

This report is a summary of a workshop which took place on 30 November 2022 in Cairo (Egypt), and which explored the role of regional organisations to accelerate the energy transition while ensuring the security of supply.
Drawing on insights from experts from regional organisations, the energy industry, academia, and civil society, the report examines the challenges and opportunities facing regional organisations in designing and implementing regulatory frameworks for sustainable energy systems that can one day tackle the energy transition. Key themes that emerged from the discussions include the need for clear and consistent policy frameworks, stakeholder engagement, innovation and technology, and the potential for regional collaboration.

March 2023
Future Role of Renewable Gases

This document describes the level of development of renewable gases in the Mediterranean region, providing an overview of the regulatory framework and the energy strategy of the countries applied to hydrogen and biogases. The report also informs about the existing and planned projects in the region, and the support mechanisms that are in place or are planned to be established.

January 2023
Digital card - Energy Storage and Demand Management: The Example of Portugal

This pedagogical publication is based on our Portuguese Study Visit Report entitled “Exploring Energy Storage and Demand Management”. It presents the regulatory policies and trends on these important topics, with a focus on Portugal, through summarised and schematic information.

January 2023
Infographic - Using Energy Regulation to Serve Climate Obligations

This pedagogical publication is based on our “Training Report: Climate Obligations, Environmental Standards, and Regulations”. It translates the complex subjects of renewable energy, energy efficiency, buyer power, the role of natural gas and hydrogen, technology innovation and electric mobility, into accessible concepts. It also highlights the role of regulators and MEDREG’s action to reduce the environmental damage.

December 2022
Training Report Climate Obligations, Environmental Standards, and Regulations

This technical report intends to provide a better understanding to our members of how environmental and climate change matters are intertwined with their daily regulatory work as well as what is expected from regulators in terms of contribution to the ongoing efforts to reduce the carbon footprint.

Based on our training on “Climate Obligations, Environmental Standards, and Regulations” that took place in Tirana (Albania) in May 2022, the report comprises the contributions of several international speakers specialised in their fields and of energy regulators’ representatives from different Mediterranean countries.

January 2023
Study Visit - Report Exploring Energy Storage and Demand Management

This document highlights the main questions and possible answers that characterise energy storage and demand side management in the Portuguese energy sector, focusing on the role played by the regulator in implementing and monitoring it.

Based on our study visit to the Portuguese energy regulator ERSE on “Energy Storage and Demand Management” that took place in Lisbon (Portugal) in July 2022, the report comprises the contributions of ERSE’s experts, and of energy regulators’ representatives from different southern Mediterranean countries.

December 2022
MEDREG - ECRB Joint Workshop Report on Support Mechanisms for RES Integration

This report summarises the outcomes of the discussions held in the joint workshop on “Support Mechanisms for RES integration, Flexibility Mechanisms and Innovative Technologies” held in October 2022 in Lisbon.

April 2022
Snapshot: Energy Efficiency and E-Mobility in the Med
This document provides an overview of the existing policies related to energy efficiency and of the state of e-mobility in the Mediterranean region, presenting different strategies from MEDREG countries. A short analysis is also included as take-way points, together with a set of recommendations meant for regulators and policymakers to improve energy system efficiency and expand the development of e-mobility. It is based on the RES WG report “Energy efficiency programmes and electric mobility in Mediterranean countries”.
March 2022
Energy efficiency programmes and electric mobility in Mediterranean countries
This document gives us an overview of the existing policies and strategies in the Mediterranean region related to energy efficiency. Furthermore, it demonstrates the critical role of NRAs in improving energy efficiency, which varies from country to country. In addition, it provides an overview of the state of e-mobility in the Mediterranean region, presenting different strategies illustrated by some case studies from MEDREG countries. The report ends with a set of recommendations meant for regulators and policymakers to improve energy system efficiency as a cost-effective tool for achieving decarbonisation and expand the development of e-mobility.
September 2021
Digital Card: Regulation as a Tool for the Integration of Renewable Energy Sources
As countries are taking measures to respond to climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean region, energy regulators have specific responsibilities to implement or oversee the promotion and integration of renewable energy sources (RES) alongside their traditional regulatory role.

Based on a recent MEDREG’s report, this digital card explains how regulation is and can be used to accelerate and increase the integration of RES and more widely accompany the decarbonisation of the energy sector.

2 March 2021
MEDREG Experts Exchange for LCEC
Energy regulators play a pivotal role in RES deployment and an increasing number of Mediterranean countries have adopted renewable energy auctions. In 2019, MEDREG carried out a report on "Transparency and accountability in renewable energy auctions" with the objective of identifying auctions’ predominant features while assessing their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, and formulating recommendations on how to improve all of them. The Lebanese Centre for Energy Conservation (LCEC) is planning to further improve its capacity for developing renewable energy auctions and has requested the assistance of MEDREG. This handbook is based on a webinar organised by MEDREG to this extent, which presented the best practices related to transparency and accountability rules and auction procedures, showing methods from different countries with good results in achieving price reduction.The document examined the Lebanese auction process in each of its stages focusing on how it could be innovated to apply it to the Lebanese context.
19 February 2021
New Available Regulatory Options for Integration of RES
This report aims to call attention to the evolution of the power system. It starts with the recent development of renewables (RES) and changes in support policies. It builds upon the 2019 MEDREG report “Analysis of auction mechanisms to promote RES” and presents the changes in the current policies in the MEDREG countries after analysing responses to a second questionnaire from its members. Different types of self-consumption models are explained along with the presentation of case studies from MEDREG countries. Recent changes, along with disruptive innovations such as blockchain and Internet of Things (IoT), are demonstrated. Barriers for regulators to integrate RES in the power system are illustrated with the respective remedies. The report also provides a set of recommendations for regulators and policymakers to prepare them for the new power system era.
December 2019
Analysis of auction mechanisms to promote RES
This report seeks to analyse the renewable energy auction mechanisms applied in the Mediterranean basin and on the international level. It describes various types and aspects of renewable energy auction schemes, drawing on the actual experiences of the countries under study.
It also assesses the applicability of different auction types to renewable support under different market countries, identifying the strengths and weakness of RES-E auctions. Furthermore, it determines the auction types and design specifications that suit particular requirements and policy targets in each country under study. Additionally, through an analysis of empirical experiences and certain case studies, the most effective practices in designing auctions for renewable support are identified.
November 2019
"Clean Energy for all Europeans" Package: Implications and Opportunities for the Mediterranean
This briefing on the legislative package "Clean Energy for all Europeans" - CE4ALL explores various options for the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries to cooperate with European Union Member States.
The focus of cooperation options is in the area of deploying renewable energy sources, interconnections and electricity market integration.

This publication was prepared by the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) as part of the Center for Mediterranean Integration’s Mediterranean Forum on Electricity and Climate Change.
December 2018
Smart Grids in Mediterranean Countries
The report on Smart Grids in Mediterranean Countries has been performed by the Renewable Working Group (RES) in cooperation with the and Electricity one (ELE).  This publication analyses the technologies that are implemented in the development of smart grids. Different case studies related to these technologies are provided by MEDREG member countries. The cases give a picture on how these technologies are implemented and what may be the future steps.
December 2017
Benchmarking Assessment
Based on data collected from 15 MEDREG members and following the 2014 Benchmarking Assessment, this report provides an overview of the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) national situation in terms of total RES generation, technology mix of renewable sources, and the developments in the last years. It also informs on the national legislative and regulatory framework for RES and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for electricity generation.
In addition, the report draws general trends in terms of electricity demand and generation, the share of RES, the increase of RES generation and CO2 emissions from electricity generation as well as carbon intensity.
January 2017
Report on Certification Systems of Origin for Electricity from RES and CHP
This report analyzes the guarantees of origin (GOs) in Mediterranean countries. It seeks to identify the common points and the fundamental differences between the practices in different Mediterranean countries focusing on the purpose of using GOs, the role of regulation and the means to supervise this labeling instrument. Regardless of the motivation or the incentive mechanism chosen, the guarantee of origin is largely used for the traceability or to grant advantages in some cases. The use of guarantee of origin is examined through case studies of experiences from European, Balkan and North-African countries: Algeria, Croatia, Egypt, Italy, Portugal and Spain. The report highlights that it is necessary to develop approaches to make the disclosure system more coherent and reliable and information on disclosure more transparent, so that customers can make a decision based on reliable and trustworthy information.
December 2015
2014 Benchmarking Assessment
The Working Group on Environment, RES and Energy Efficiency performed the fifth Benchmarking assessment to provide with an overview of the current situation of MEDREG members with regard to power generation, total demand and share of renewable energy sources over demand. The result of this report shows an increasing of capacity installed and generation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) electricity in almost all MEDREG members, although the results shows a high variability between years, mainly because of weather conditions and its influence on hydro and wind technologies. For instance, in 2014 there was a slight decrease in RES generation, because of a reduction on electricity from hydro technology in some countries. This report also includes a specific part related to the role and competencies of the energy regulator in each country.
November 2014
Working Group on Environment, RES and Energy Efficiency Benchmarking Assessment 2013
This fourth report aims to give an overview of the current situation of MEDREG members with regard to power generation, total demand and share of renewable energy sources over demand. Information are mainly based on responses to a specific questionnaire. The information received from member regulators shows the diversity of technologies used to cover their needs. Thermal power plants (TPP) dominate the energy mix, followed by hydro. There are still important gaps among MEDREG countries with regards to installed capacities from RES.
November 2014
Study to evaluate net metering systems in Mediterranean countries
The aim of this report is to analyse “net metering systems” in Mediterranean countries, from different points of view: generators, distributors, consumers, etc., in a context of emerging concepts such as “smart grids” or “distributed generation”. For this assessment the RES WG used some best practices based on the experience of five countries: Spain, Israel, Montenegro, Italy and Portugal. The report shows underlines the main benefits resulting from the implementation of such mechanisms, mainly in terms of management of increased RES production and also in the possible reduction of end-user prices. Before deciding whether to implement “net metering systems”, policy makers need to analyse costs and benefits, taking into account the specificities of each national electricity system.
November 2013
Assessments of mechanisms to integrate RES in isolated electricity systems in MEDREG countries
The aim of this report is to present an assessment of the key aspects of the integration of RES in isolated systems in MEDREG countries. In particular, the report analyzes political and socio-­-economic issues, electricity generation technology and regulatory issues. This assessment is illustrated with case studies from Algeria, France, Greece, Portugal and Spain, showing how each of these countries address the challenge of meeting the electricity needs in isolated areas of their territory.
November 2013
2012 Benchmarking Assessment
Every year this report aims at giving an overview of the situation and evolution MEDREG members in terms of power generation structure, total demand, and share of renewable generation over demand. Information are mainly based on responses to a specific questionnaire. The information collected in 2012 shows that all examined countries have a varied mix of technologies to cover their electrical needs. In general, thermal installed capacity (consuming coal, natural gas or, to a lesser extent, fuel is the most widespread technology, followed by hydro. The report shows that the percentage of total installed capacity covered by renewable technologies (mainly hydro, wind and biomass) widely varies across members.
November 2012
2011 Benchmarking Assessment
The objective of this report is to obtain a general overview of the current situation of each Member State of the MedReg, which belongs to the AG on Environment, Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Efficiency (RES AG), in terms of power generation structure, demand evolution, market organization and level of pollutant emissions. From the information received, it is possible to determine that all examined countries have a varied mix of technologies to cover their electrical necessities. In general, thermal installed capacity (consuming coal or natural gas) is the most extended, followed by hydro. From the received data, the percentage of total capacity installed covered by RES (mainly hydro, wind and biomass) is very different from some members to others.
June 2012
Case Study on Art.9
Objective of the case study The objective of this report is to present the basic framework to develop a case study on application of the article 9 of Directive 2009/28/EC, towards to achieve respective mandatory target in year 2020. The Mediterranean Solar Plan The Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP), born under the scope of the “Barcelona Process: Union for the Mediterranean (UfM)”, launched in July 2008, is one of the strategic processes for sustainable development, facing the foreseeable increase of energy demand in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and the need to cut back greenhouse effect gas emissions. Its main objective is to develop 20 GW of renewable electricity capacity on the South Shore of the Mediterranean, as well as the necessary infrastructures for the electricity interconnection with Europe. The Plan also envisages Saving and Energy Efficiency, as well as Technology Transfer. A key element for the development of this Plan is the establishment of a suitable, new regulatory framework to promote the deployment of renewable energies, and facilitating the exchange of electricity. The MSP must be a huge step ahead in the development of the euro-mediterranean cooperation policy in the field of energy, started with the Barcelona Process in 1995, integrated in the European Neighbourhood Policy since 2007 and reinforced with the creation of the Union for the Mediterranean since 2008. This objective would permit countries of the Mediterranean region to use their high potential in resources on renewable energy generation for energy self-sufficiency as well as trading. Furthermore, there would be social advantages of capacity building and accordingly, local qualified employment creation. For EU Countries, the MSP means a great opportunity of achieving renewable targets defined in 2009/28/CE Directive.
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