Our technical reports and pedagogical leaflets promote best practices and set recommendations to foster a common regulatory culture.
April 2024
Energy Price Surge: Impacts and Lessons Learnt for Mediterranean Energy Markets - 2023 Update

This report provides the latest data and analysis on the impact of escalating energy prices in the Mediterranean region. It sheds light on the diverse effects felt across the region due to the energy price surge.


It highlights the broader repercussions on inflation in several Mediterranean countries, underscoring the multifaceted economic implications stemming from the surge in energy costs.


In addition to analysing the current conditions, the report offers insights into future trends and perspectives, with a particular focus on the trajectory of gas prices throughout 2023 and 2024. Understanding these evolving dynamics is essential for stakeholders to navigate the energy landscape effectively and formulate informed strategies for sustainable energy management in the Mediterranean region.


The updated report serves as a valuable resource for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and regulatory bodies, providing crucial insights into the complex interplay between energy prices, inflation, and future trends, and guiding efforts to ensure a resilient and affordable energy future for the Mediterranean region.

March 2024
Smart Meter and Smart Grid Integration Requirements

This report provides a comprehensive insight into the region's requirements for smart meter and smart grid integration.
It addresses the key requirements for successful smart meter deployment and smart grid integration in the Mediterranean context, such as the establishment of a robust communication infrastructure, adherence to data privacy and security standards, and the development of interoperability protocols.

Additionally, the study explores the technical, financial, and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to achieve widespread adoption of these technologies.

The report also discusses case studies and best practices from various Mediterranean countries and analyses successful initiatives, describing lessons learned and key success factors.

September 2023
Digital card - A Glimpse at the Mediterranean Energy Mix and Cross-Border Interconnections

Based on MEDREG’s flagship MEMO report, this short digital card provides an overview of the energy mix by country and by region and of the cross-border interconnections in the Maghreb, the Middle East, the Balkans and Tu¨rkiye, as well as in EU MEDREG Member countries. It offers some recommendations to accelerate the decarbonisation of the energy sector and increase the security of supply in the Mediterranean region.

March 2023
Mediterranean Electricity Markets Observatory – MEMO+

Since 2007, the Mediterranean Electricity Market Observatory (MEMO) monitors every two years the evolution of national, sub-regional, and regional electricity markets.
This edition provides updated national data, explores the RES integration challenges, and analyses data exchange and information. It includes indicators which assess the national priorities in Mediterranean countries and their potential to be a part of the integrated sub-regional and regional electricity markets.

March 2023
Price Surge and Security of Supply

Elaborated by a Task Force set-up by our Electricity Working Group to respond to the energy crisis, this report describes the recent gas and electricity price dynamics and presents an analysis of the impact of the price surge on the various energy markets of Mediterranean countries.

The analysis is complemented by further reflections on the challenges posed by the crisis for both the European Union and developing countries in the Mediterranean.

January 2023
Training Report - Infrastructure Investments, Network Remuneration, and Tariffs

Based on our training on “Infrastructure Investments, Network Remuneration, and Tariffs” that took place in October 2022 in Milan (Italy), this report tackles these three pillars that are crucial to the advancement of the energy sector and to drive the energy transition.

It gives an overview on the topics that were discussed during the training and comprises the contributions of several international speakers from MEDREG regulators and collaborating entities specialised in their fields.

December 2022
Workshop Report on Security of Supply and Adequacy Mechanisms

This report summarises the discussions and conclusions of a workshop on “Security of Supply and Adequacy Mechanisms” led by our Electricity Working Group (ELE WG) in October 2022 in Milan.

March 2022
Security of supply
Electricity security is vital to the effective functioning of modern societies and economies, so security of supply has always been a major driver of investments in transmission systems. Governments are increasingly concerned about the capacity of existing markets and regulatory frameworks to continue providing a reliable, affordable, and efficient supply of electricity. In that context, this report maps the security of supply in the Mediterranean region, identifies the main indicators used, and makes recommendations based on the experiences of each country to improve the security of supply of the other countries.
March 2022
Workshop report: Enabling electricity exchanges and trading in the Mediterranean
This document summarises the exchanges held in the joint MEDREG-Med-TSO workshop which took place in February 2022 on “Enabling electricity exchanges and trading in the Mediterranean”. The workshop gathered different stakeholders, including International Financial Institutions, from various backgrounds, experiences, and regions (Europe, GCC and Southern Africa) who discussed the importance of an integrated energy market.
March 2022
Planning of Distribution Network in Israel

This report presents the various legal and regulatory policies as well as the practical implementation of the Long-Term Distribution Network Master Plan (LT-DNMP) and/or a Distribution Network Investments Plan (LT-DNIP).
The study is particularly focused on Israel, although it offers an overview of the policies and practices in several Mediterranean countries.
It provides an overview of the overall process regarding the approval of LT-DNMP or LT-DNIP, and of their economic aspects, mainly regarding the determination of costs and the approval of LT-DNIP. It also examines the policies on incentives and penalties for investing in distribution networks throughout the Mediterranean region.
The study presents the best practices and regional developments across the Mediterranean region to facilitate the adoption of measures by the member countries.

March 2021
Regional Integration: Sub-Regional Regulatory Convergence
This report assesses the current status of electricity market integration at the sub-regional level in the North African and Eastern Mediterranean sub-regions. The report addresses the role of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) in supporting regulatory convergence in the two sub-regional clusters, and analyses the drivers for sub-regional integration in the long term, including a reference to the integration potentialities between the sub-regional power markets and the level of investment in infrastructure required in such process. It also explains how potential areas of regulatory convergence could be developed to be used as leverage in advancing the process of integration and interoperability of the systems.
March 2021
System Operator data information schemes for monitoring and planning purposes
The ELE WG report defines and studies the application of new monitoring and data collection activities to ensure access on a transparent and non-discriminatory basis to any market player in the sector. Through the recommendations, it is addressed how EgyptERA should separate the activities potentially subject to competition (such as production and supply of energy) from those where competition is not possible or allowed (such as transmission and distribution). EgyptERA will implement the entire set of market and System Operator monitoring activities from scratch and will introduce an effective process to streamline the information that will be required by the relevant operators. This process will be defined in terms of minimum complexity and according to the gradual approach.
March 2021
Least-cost distribution tariff-design in theory and implementation in the Palestinian Electricity System
The study evaluates infrastructure investment planning, as well as the identification of the main technical requirements for investment in infrastructure through the definition of guidelines and standard methodologies. It sets forth the analysis of the electricity system of the Palestinian territories and assesses the possible structure of a novel multi-part tariff structure that accounts for these costs under the new dynamics in place in the Palestinian electricity system. The report also builds on the case-study performed by the WB report “Securing Energy for Development in West Bank and Gaza” (2017) and includes more recent data provided by the PERC to evaluate the impact of a possible capacity component in the tariff structure.
1 December 2020
Le fonctionnement des marchés de détail français de l’électricité et du gaz naturel - Rapport 2018-2019 (CRE)
Le rapport s’articule autour de la place et des attentes des consommateurs que la CRE place au centre du fonctionnement du marché de détail. Il vise à apporter une information claire et pédagogique sur le fonctionnement et les enjeux de ce marché. Le rapport est structuré autour des catégories de clients résidentiels et professionnels. L’objectif principal de l’ouverture des marchés de détail à la concurrence est d’apporter au consommateur un meilleur service de fourniture d’électricité et de gaz, qu’il s’agisse du prix, de la qualité de service, ou d’innovations commerciales ou techniques. Dans ce contexte, le développement des offres de marché est un indicateur essentiel, car il traduit le caractère dynamique et innovant du marché, à un moment où les attentes des consommateurs évoluent, encouragées notamment par la transition énergétique et le développement du numérique.
1 December 2020
Electricity and gas interconnections 2020 - Report published by CRE
A decade after the adoption of the third legislative package, this new edition of the CRE report on interconnections, covering the years 2018 and 2019, marks the coming of age of the internal market, but also the opening towards a new era, that of the decarbonisation of energy in Europe. The European Union’s stated ambitions represent a remarkable change of direction and bring with them many challenges. However, one certainty remains: the interconnections between national energy systems are an essential asset for the transition to more renewable energies and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at European level.
4 September 2020
Renewable Energy in Palestine
The article provides an overview of the electricity market in Palestine and of the role of the regulator in strengthening competition, and preventing the forging of monopolies by working as a key player to stimulate investment in renewable energy. An insight is also provided on policies currently in place to increase investments, which include special tariffs, net metering and the construction of energy substations through direct offers or competitive bids, while highlighting the main challenges related to the implementation of these policies.

Author: Hamdi Refat S. Tahboub, CEO of the Palestinian Electricity Regulatory Council (PERC) and co-chair of MEDREG Electricity Working Group
Published on "This Week in Palestine", Issue n°269, September 2020
July 2020
Overview of Unbundling regimes - the Portuguese case
"Overview of unbundling regimes and organizational models of the transmission and distribution networks in the power market and the Portuguese case"
Author: Mr. José Francisco Veiga, Legal Department at the Portuguese Energy Services Regulatory Authority (ERSE)
This paper was created as a supporting reading material for the training that MEDREG organized in June 2020 on “Unbundling and Third-Party Access in gas and electricity markets: economic principles, design and effective implementation”. MEDREG wishes to thank Mr. José Francisco Veiga for preparing this report to the benefit of the whole MEDREG community.
January 2020
Mediterranean Electricity Markets Observatory (MEMO)
Conducted for the first time in 2007, the Mediterranean Electricity Market Observatory (MEMO) monitors the evolution of national, sub-regional and regional electricity markets, every three years.
This edition focusses on national data and regional integration. It assesses national priorities in Mediterranean countries and their potential for being a part of the integrated sub-regional and regional electricity markets.
The report highlights that there is a considerable contrast around the Mediterranean Sea, between the northern shore where infrastructures and supply have reached very high standards, and the southern and eastern shores where networks, generation and regional integration are progressing at different speeds in different areas.
In this context, regional cooperation appears to be a privileged option for mutual strengthening of national systems. Cross-border integration offers opportunities for building upon complementarities of systems and providing broader outlets to RES generation. However, challenges are important, and transmission system operators and regulators have a crucial role to play.  
February 2019
Options réglementaires pour la stimulation des investissements dans les infrastructures
Établissement des faits et examen des défis concernant les investissements dans les infrastructures
Ce rapport évalue le niveau de développement des systèmes électriques et détermine les priorités et les défis relatifs à la stimulation des investissements pertinents.
Afin de correctement stimuler l'investissement dans la région méditerranéenne, MEDREG formule les recommandations de priorités suivantes :
  • Clarifier l’architecture institutionnelle à l’échelle nationale
  • Améliorer la capacité de planification de l'investissement
  • Garantir un bon niveau de transparence et de savoir
  • S'appuyer sur les compétences des régulateurs
  • January 2019
    Regulatory options for the stimulation of infrastructure investments
    Fact finding and review of challenges in investment in infrastructure
    This report assesses the level of development of power systems and to identify priorities and challenges for the stimulation of relevant investments.
    To properly stimulate investments in the Mediterranean region, MEDREG makes the following priority recommendations:
  • Clarify the institutional architecture at national level
  • Improve investment planning capacity:
  • Ensure a proper level of transparency and know-how
  • Build upon regulators’ competences
  • March 2018
    Towards a MEDREG Electricity Market Observatory
    The MEMO is a periodic assessment, with a time span of three years each, which studies the evolution of Mediterranean national electricity markets. Over a period of one decade, the MEMO helped regulators understanding the evolution of the regional energy markets, allowing a comparison of 11 indicators that assess the status of the regulatory progress and national market establishment in MEDREG countries.
    In 2017, the overall level of progress in all eleven indicators is around 80%. Three indicators scored higher than 94%, which are Legislative & regulatory framework (96%), Regulations (94%), and Technical and commercial rules and arrangements (95%). On the other hand, the lowest score was 59% for Imports and Exports. These results indicate a huge success over the previous reports published in 2010 and 2014.
    The findings obtained from this report show that the first step towards the establishment of a regional electricity market is the harmonization of internal market rules; reinforcements of interconnections, as the physical medium of the market, are in progress in different countries.
    January 2017
    Performance Indicators and penalties applicable to generators in case of failure
    Security of supply is a high priority topic for National Regulatory Authorities for energy (NRAs); more specifically, the issue of generation availability is a well discussed topic in many countries of the South shore of the Mediterranean region. In those countries, with the objective to deliver sustainable and secure energy, it is clear that security of supply is mainly based on the generation performances and efficient use of existing generation. The report also aims at defining and specifying the role of the regulator with respect to the producers’ performance evaluation as well as sharing best practices in the field of production failures. At national level, the study aims at providing the most appropriate indicators and corresponding standards to MEDREG’s members to evaluate production performance. Meanwhile at regional level, the aim is to enhance data quality by comparing and sharing reliable data for benchmarking.
    January 2017
    Twinning Workshop Conclusions
    This conclusion document provides an update of the state of play and way forward of the regulatory twinning initiatives in the Mediterranean region which was presented at a workshop held in Milan on 18 October 2016. Currently, there are of the two on-going twinning initiatives taking place in the Mediterranean region on energy regulation: EgyptERA (Egypt), RAE (Greece), AEEGSI (Italy) and CREG (Algeria), CNMC (Spain), E-Control (Austria). This document summarises the components, timeline and benefits for beneficiary country (BC) and suggests the role that MEDREG could play in the future to support its members of the south shore of the Mediterranean in twinning initiatives.
    June 2015
    ELE WG - Mediterranean Electricity Markets Observatory (Memo) Part 2 – Regional electricity markets
    The MEDREG Electricity Working Group (ELE WG) decided to set up a Mediterranean Electricity Markets Observatory (MEMO) in order to assess the progress in establishing and integrating national and (sub)regional markets. The MEMO relies on a periodical survey filled in every three years by MEDREG members since 2007. This report assesses the status and recent developments with regards to e.g. international trade priorities, (sub)regional market structures and transmission rights. To achieve a clear state of play for the Mediterranean countries, a questionnaire was sent to all MEDREG members and 15 responses were collected. The next update of the report on regional markets is planned in 3 years-time (publication in 2018).
    June 2013
    Benchmarking and Performance Evaluation on Quality of Supply within Distribution Grids in MedReg Countries
    The ELE Working Group studied quality of supply in MEDREG countries. It benchmarked quality of supply and evaluated the performance of supply within distribution grids. The aim of this report is to investigate MEDREG members' experiences concerning the distribution system, namely in the measurement and indicators used to evaluate the performance of the grids.
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