Our technical reports and pedagogical leaflets promote best practices and set recommendations to foster a common regulatory culture.
March 2024
Energy consumer protection in Albania

This short report is based on insights provided by Erjola Sadushi, Commissioner of the Albanian Energy Regulatory Entity (ERE), in a podcast registered in January 2024 titled “Energy consumer protection in Albania and Algeria”.

This podcast transcription informs about the measures taken by ERE to protect vulnerable consumers from increased energy prices and about the communication channels put in place in Albania to empower consumers to make informed decisions.

March 2024
Energy consumer protection in Algeria

This short report is based on insights shared by Karima Sadou, Director for Consumer Protection and Conciliation at CREG, in a podcast registered in January 2024 titled “Energy consumer protection in Albania and Algeria”.

This podcast transcription informs about the measures taken by CREG to protect vulnerable consumers from increased energy prices and about the communication channels put in place in Algeria to empower consumers making informed decisions.

It also sheds light on the broad Algerian energy policy, the diversification of energy sources and the efforts deployed in the country to improve regional market integration.

February 2024
Guidelines of Good Regulatory Practices on Consumer Protection Rules and Communication Strategies

The report showcases best practices in various countries within the Mediterranean region as a way to offer a valuable framework for regulators and stakeholders to ensure consumer protection within the energy market, promoting fairness and transparency.
It provides benchmarking on communication practices between regulators, energy stakeholders and consumers, as well as collaborative efforts with various organisations and ministries. It describes outreach campaigns carried out by some regulators to empower consumers and foster active participation.
Best billing practices are shared illustrating the regulators’ crucial role in overseeing billing accuracy and dispute resolution.
It also addresses supplier terms, contract termination and access to price comparison tools, which constitute important consumer rights and tools for informed decision-making.

December 2023
Summary Report on CEER – ECRB – MEDREG Trilateral Workshop on Consumer Related Issues

This report summarises the exchanges held in October 2023 during the trilateral workshop between experts from regulatory bodies in the region and members of the consumer/customer working groups of the three associations.
It addresses the evolving landscape of consumer-related energy issues within the Mediterranean, European, and Balkan regions. It also explores the complexities and opportunities inherent in the energy market transformations, with a focus on the urgent need to address consumer-centric concerns while navigating the transition towards sustainable, cleaner energy systems.

March 2023
Update on Technical and Non-Technical Losses

This report, which follows a previous study on the subject conducted in 2019, analyses how countries define power losses, how they calculate them and how they distinguish them.
It provides state of the art techniques to calculate and distinguish the loss types. It also informs on the efforts made by some Mediterranean countries towards reducing the losses, featuring some of the best practices in the region, as provided by our members.

In addition, the study analyses the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the losses, especially at the distribution level, which differs from country to country.

December 2022
Workshop Report on “Digitalisation and Cybersecurity”

This report summarises the contents presented during the workshop on "Digitalisation and Cybersecurity", which took place in December 2022 under the leadership of our Consumers Working Group (CUS WG). The report addresses the role of digitalisation in the electricity and gas markets and provides insights on cybersecurity codes and procedures of handling cyber-attacks.

December 2022
Workshop Report on “Regulators’ Support to Consumer Protection”

This report summarises the knowledge shared in a workshop held in Milan in October 2022. In addition to national case studies from our members (Albania, Algeria, Egypt, and Spain), the contents benefit from the contributions of Next Energy Consumer, and of CEER and ECRB on regional perspectives and ongoing activities related to consumer protection.

June 2022
Infographic: Digitalisation of the Energy Sector from the Consumers’ Perspective

In recent years, digital technologies have gained a prominent importance in our daily lives, and consumers are becoming more demanding in terms of information and user-friendly solutions. The energy sector makes no exception to this trend and is increasingly relying on digitalisation at all its levels. Many countries have already started to use new technologies and innovative solutions to upgrade the efficiency of their energy systems by implementing smart meters and the automation in the transmission and distribution networks.

This infographic pictures the growing role of digitalisation in supporting the development of smarter energy in the Mediterranean countries and how it enables energy consumers to become active players in the energy system.

It is based on MEDREG’s Consumer Working Group’s report titled “Role of digitalisation and its impact on consumer issues” published in 2022.

March 2022
Role of digitalization and its impact on consumer issues
As the energy sector is on the cusp of a new era, dominated by new technologies and the digitalisation of all its levels, many countries have already started to use new technologies and innovative solutions to upgrade the efficiency of their energy systems. This report explores the role of digitalisation and its impact on consumer in the Mediterranean region. It presents the digital channels and the availability of information for consumers; it identifies the most common digitalisation technologies such as smart technology and small-scale distributed electricity resources; and it looks at cyber security measures in the region. Finally, the report provides recommendations based on the analysis of the data collected from the members.
March 2022
Technical summary: The Digitalisation of Energy Markets and the New Role of Consumers

Aimed at MEDREG members, this document presents the concept of digitalisation of energy markets on different levels and exposes the pros and cons of digitalisation. It also addresses cybersecurity and the importance of developing relevant procedures, national standards, and best practices.
Meant as a manual for regulators who are looking at enhancing their grids and services, this publication summarises the contents and knowledge shared during the MEDREG training titled “Regulatory Implications of the Digitalisation of Energy Markets and the New Role of the Consumers” by renowned experts, held in October 2021.

February 2022
Snapshot: Digitalisation of Energy Markets from the Regulators’ Perspective

This snapshot presents the implications of the digitalisation of the energy sector for regulators.
It shows the beneficial role that digitalisation plays to foster the energy transition and incorporate renewables to the energy systems. It also presents the cybersecurity risks that digitalisation implies, proposing solutions to the regulators. Finally, it pictures how infrastructure, innovation, smart grids and meters, flexibility of services, blockchain, Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence are interlinked parameters of digitalisation and enabling factors to consumer empowerment.

It is based on the MEDREG Training“Regulatory Implications of the Digitalisation of Energy Markets and the New Role of Consumers” held in October 2021.

December 2021
Digital card: Improving the Quality of Consumer Services through Regulation
This digital card proposes regulatory measures and recommendations applicable to all MEDREG energy regulators to improve the quality of consumer services. It is based on a peer review carried out by MEDREG Consumer Working Group in 2020 for our Jordanian member, informed by a variety of case studies and international good practices in terms of connection, complaint management, billing, and power interruption.
24 February 2021
Treatment of vulnerable consumers in Mediterranean countries
This report presents the situation of vulnerable consumers among MEDREG members, providing an overview of the situation across MEDREG members states as it regards the treatment of vulnerable consumers. The state of play has been presented through an analysis of the types of support and models applied for the protection of vulnerable consumers, which includes understanding and definition of vulnerable consumers, specific support schemes from energy and/or social welfare system, types of support and coverage of costs as well as examples of best practices. The analysis of the situation is based on the contribution provided by MEDREG members through filled questionnaires. Recommendations aiming to improve the situation of vulnerable consumers and their protection are provided, with the objective of guiding MEDREG members on taking feasible, sustainable and adequately responsive measures, according to the economic and social situation of their country.
24 February 2021
Peer review for the Jordanian regulator EMRC: Improving the quality of consumer services
In the latest years, MEDREG developed a framework to support regulatory reforms in its countries of operation and assist its members towards attaining the required level of development in their energy regulatory frameworks. In this context, the Action Plan for the Consumer Working Group foresaw an opportunity to carry out a peer review assessment for the Jordanian energy regulator EMRC, focusing on the current status of the consumers’ quality of services and the regulatory and legislative acts in place in Jordan. As a first step, the MEDREG Secretariat in coordination with EMRC has defined the expected content and outcomes of the peer review exercise. This report considers the applicability to not only Jordan – which is the principal focus of this study – but also the wider MEDREG region countries.
January 2020
Complaint handling and dispute settlement procedures available to energy consumers
It provides the state of play of the complaint handling and dispute settlement procedures available to household customers in the energy market in the Mediterranean and Balkan regions. It shares the best practices and offers recommendations for the implementation of minimum criteria to guarantee household consumers access to justice.
December 2019
Regulatory practices on handling technical and non-technical losses for electricity
This report provides a picture of power losses among MEDREG members.
It gives an overview of the situation of MEDREG members with regard to power losses, through an analysis of the factors affecting power losses.
Furthermore, this report provides recommendations on reducing power losses from the perspective of not only energy efficiency but also consumer protection, aiming to guide MEDREG members in taking doable measures, according to the economic and social situations of their respective countries. Some of them already have a plan of activities aimed at power loss minimisation, which are even marked by targets.
January 2019
Overview on disconnection procedures due to non-payment in the Mediterranean region
This report presents the impact that the disconnection procedures currently applied have on consumers in MEDREG countries. The collection of data helps to analyze the status of consumers’ protection in each country, facilitates the understanding of common practices carried out in the Mediterranean region and identifies potential regulatory gaps that should be tackled to enhance the role of regulators in their respective countries.
As a result, the report represents a potential starting point for the preparation of recommendations at regional and national level in the field of disconnection practices.
November 2018
Complaint Handling & Dispute Settlement Procedures available to Household Customers - Status review
MEDREG and ECRB put their resources in common to review the procedures available to energy consumers to handle complaint and settle disputes and share best practices.
This report maps out the current status and nature of complaint handling, dispute settlement and consumer awareness in the Eastern Europe and Mediterranean countries.  It is accompanied by recommendations applicable to disputes between consumers and their providers.
Based on a survey answered by 19 members from MEDREG and ECRB, the report shows that regardless of the level of customers’ protection, consumers’ protection is gaining a growing interest.
October 2017
CUS WG - Best practices to enhance consumers’ engagement
This report aims at supporting and encouraging MEDREG Members to improve consumer engagement within the regulatory process. It provides qualitative information on concrete examples of consumer’s engagement practices, looking beyond the role of Consumers Associations.
MEDREG members selected a number of case studies worthy to be considered as successful examples. Starting from the most relevant and interesting issues raised in the “Survey on Consumers Associations”, the report describes the methodology put in place to collect, through a detailed questionnaire, examples which MEDREG members considered as valuable to be shared. 
Regulators provided the main features of their consumer engagement policy such as objectives, strengths and challenges, impacted stages of the regulatory processes, methods to involve consumers, resources and resulting feedback.
Such information has been used to develop guidelines to provide guidance and inspiration for MEDREG members wishing to improve the involvement of consumers and their associations in their decision making process.
18 July 2016
Survey on CAs in The Mediterranean
Mediterranean Energy Regulators have clear responsibilities with regard to consumer protection, which is part of their core regulatory mission. Assessing the definition and support measures for energy consumers is also one of the the MEDREG Strategy 2020-2030 goals, which is supported by all energy regulators in the Mediterranean. MEDREG collected information on the role and activities of existing consumer associations (CAs) in the Mediterranean that are dealing with energy issues, focusing on how regulators interact with CAs in taking their decisions at national level. The report highlights that there is growing interest to involve CAs in the decision making process through tools such as public hearings and consultations procedures, data and opinion collection. At the same time, regulators seem to consider Consumers Associations as extremely useful to support more consistent consumer awareness concerning their rights and the promotion of fair prices and better service quality.
July 2016
MEDREG Vulnerable Consumers
Energy consumers should have a central role in energy retail markets and it is therefore vital that consumer associations, local authorities, regulators, ombudsmen, industry and other key stakeholders work hand-in-hand with regulators to study the behavior and condition of different consumer categories. The MEDREG CUS WG focused its attention on vulnerable consumers, identifying a common set of characteristics that this category of consumers displays in the Mediterranean area. 15 regulators provided information on their national initiatives to support vulnerable consumers and improve their condition. Through this report the CUS WG identified best practices to deal with vulnerable consumers that could be implemented n other Mediterranean countries.
June 2015
CUS WG - MEDREG Consumers rights Brochure
The Consumers Issues Working Group (CUS WG) prepared a brochure on Consumers rights for the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this brochure is to help consumers in identifying their rights. The document is conceived as an introductory tool providing consumers with adequate information on their rights as energy consumers. It contains useful information concerning: Consumers rights (as defined in Members primary legislation), Transparent contract information, Basic information on how to satisfy their needs using energy more efficiently, Basic information on energy tariffs and bills, Complaint and dispute resolution procedures.
June 2014
Good practice guidance for energy consumers information and education
Based on previous surveys, the CUS TF decided to enlarge the scope of the work done, and to elaborate a Good Practice Guidance for customers education and information, including billing, also defining stronger and stricter recommendations. This Good Practice Guidance aims at setting principles and recommendations that could become part of national action plans. Furthermore, recommendations in this document may be used as useful inputs to the future work of Governments and Regulatory Authorities in the field of customer information and customer knowledge under the energy retail market framework. Finally, these recommendations could be taken as a reference to address some specific challenges concerning the implementation of national energy market rules.
June 2013
Energy Billing in the Mediterranean Countries
This report is focused on energy billing methodologies that are currently applied in MEDREG countries. We researched the billing structure concerning electricity and gas households consumers. The scope of the survey was to assess the level of detail and completeness reached by bills in MEDREG countries, and subsequently identify and discuss the criticalities and good strategies which characterize the Mediterranean reasons, issuing targeted recommendations.
November 2013
Energy Customer Education and Information in the Mediterranean Countries
This survey investigates the status quo of consumer education and information in MEDREG countries, with reference to household consumers only. It concerns both electricity and gas. The report was based on overall questionnaire was filled by 16 national regulatory authorities. The report on energy information and education concerns customer protection, customer information, channels and tools of information, the promotion of customer information, and price comparison services.
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